Go (chinesisch 圍棋 / 围棋, Pinyin wéiqí, Jyutping wai4kei4*2; japanisch 囲碁 igo; koreanisch hat ein von Erik van der Werf von der „Computer Games Group“ der Universität Maastricht geschriebenes Computer-Programm namens. According to chess master Emanuel Lasker: "The rules of Go are so elegant, organic, and Go is an ancient Chinese/Japanese board game. Go board game with pull out drawers - Gollnest & Kiesel Online Shop.
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Game Go Navigation menu VideoAlphaGo - The Movie - Full Documentary Go (game), an abstract strategy board game for two players that originated in ancient China Travel Go (formerly Go – The International Travel Game), a game based on world travel Go, the starting position located at the corner of the board in the board game Monopoly. imaginingthebeatles.com is the best place to play the game of Go online. Our community supported site is friendly, easy to use, and free, so come join us and play some Go! Games Chat Puzzles Joseki Tournaments Ladders Groups Leaderboards Forums English Sign In. Go is a game where two players contest for territory; it is perhaps the oldest board game in the world. The rules are simple and you can learn them in minutes. Many enthusiasts regard Go as an art; the game's almost infinite variations stumped even the most advanced computers until recently. Go is an abstract strategy board game for two players in which the aim is to surround more territory than the opponent. The game was invented in China more than 2, years ago and is believed to be the oldest board game continuously played to the present day. Go is an ancient Chinese/Japanese board game. Players alternate placing black and white stones, with the goal to surround and capture their opponent's pieces and territory. Unlike chess, the number of potential moves is so great that even modern computers cannot beat most professional human players.
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Draws are rare, and a typical game retains a fluidity and dynamism far longer than comparable games. An early mistake can be made up, used to advantage, or reversed as the game progresses.
There is no simple procedure to turn a clear lead into a victory -- only continued good play. The game rewards patience and balance over aggression and greed; the balance of influence and territory may shift many times in the course of a game, and a strong player must be prepared to be flexible but resolute.
Go thinking seems more lateral than linear, less dependent on logical deduction, and more reliant on a "feel" for the stones, a "sense" of shape, a gestalt perception of the game.
Common tournament systems used in Go include the McMahon system ,  Swiss system , league systems and the knockout system.
Tournaments may combine multiple systems; many professional Go tournaments use a combination of the league and knockout systems.
A game of Go may be timed using a game clock. Formal time controls were introduced into the professional game during the s and were controversial.
Go tournaments use a number of different time control systems. All common systems envisage a single main period of time for each player for the game, but they vary on the protocols for continuation in overtime after a player has finished that time allowance.
The top professional Go matches have timekeepers so that the players do not have to press their own clocks. Two widely used variants of the byoyomi system are: .
Go games are recorded with a simple coordinate system. This is comparable to algebraic chess notation , except that Go stones do not move and thus require only one coordinate per turn.
Coordinate systems include purely numerical point , hybrid K3 , and purely alphabetical. The Japanese word kifu is sometimes used to refer to a game record.
In Unicode, Go stones can be represented with black and white circles from the block Geometric Shapes :. The block Miscellaneous Symbols includes "Go markers"  that were likely meant for mathematical research of Go:  .
A Go professional is a professional player of the game of Go. Although the game was developed in China, the establishment of the Four Go houses by Tokugawa Ieyasu at the start of the 17th century shifted the focus of the Go world to Japan.
State sponsorship, allowing players to dedicate themselves full-time to study of the game, and fierce competition between individual houses resulted in a significant increase in the level of play.
During this period, the best player of his generation was given the prestigious title Meijin master and the post of Godokoro minister of Go.
Of special note are the players who were dubbed Kisei Go Sage. After the end of the Tokugawa shogunate and the Meiji Restoration period, the Go houses slowly disappeared, and in , the Nihon Ki-in Japanese Go Association was formed.
Top players from this period often played newspaper-sponsored matches of 2—10 games. For much of the 20th century, Go continued to be dominated by players trained in Japan.
After his return to Korea, the Hanguk Kiwon Korea Baduk Association was formed and caused the level of play in South Korea to rise significantly in the second half of the 20th century.
With the advent of major international titles from onward, it became possible to compare the level of players from different countries more accurately.
His disciple Lee Chang-ho was the dominant player in international Go competitions for more than a decade spanning much of s and early s; he is also credited with groundbreaking works on the endgame.
As of [update] , Japan lags behind in the international Go scene. Historically, more men than women have played Go.
Special tournaments for women exist, but until recently, men and women did not compete together at the highest levels; however, the creation of new, open tournaments and the rise of strong female players, most notably Rui Naiwei , have in recent years highlighted the strength and competitiveness of emerging female players.
The level in other countries has traditionally been much lower, except for some players who had preparatory professional training in East Asia.
A famous player of the s was Edward Lasker. In , Manfred Wimmer became the first Westerner to receive a professional player's certificate from an East Asian professional Go association.
It is possible to play Go with a simple paper board and coins, plastic tokens, or white beans and coffee beans for the stones; or even by drawing the stones on the board and erasing them when captured.
More popular midrange equipment includes cardstock, a laminated particle board , or wood boards with stones of plastic or glass. More expensive traditional materials are still used by many players.
The most expensive Go sets have black stones carved from slate and white stones carved from translucent white shells, played on boards carved in a single piece from the trunk of a tree.
Chinese boards are slightly larger, as a traditional Chinese Go stone is slightly larger to match. The board is not square; there is a ratio in length to width, because with a perfectly square board, from the player's viewing angle the perspective creates a foreshortening of the board.
The added length compensates for this. More recently, the related California Torreya Torreya californica has been prized for its light color and pale rings as well as its reduced expense and more readily available stock.
The natural resources of Japan have been unable to keep up with the enormous demand for the slow-growing Kaya trees; both T.
Other, less expensive woods often used to make quality table boards in both Chinese and Japanese dimensions include Hiba Thujopsis dolabrata , Katsura Cercidiphyllum japonicum , Kauri Agathis , and Shin Kaya various varieties of spruce , commonly from Alaska, Siberia and China's Yunnan Province.
However it may happen, especially in beginners' games, that many back-and-forth captures empty the bowls before the end of the game: in that case an exchange of prisoners allows the game to continue.
Traditional Japanese stones are double-convex, and made of clamshell white and slate black. In China, the game is traditionally played with single-convex stones  made of a composite called Yunzi.
The material comes from Yunnan Province and is made by sintering a proprietary and trade-secret mixture of mineral compounds derived from the local stone.
This process dates to the Tang Dynasty and, after the knowledge was lost in the s during the Chinese Civil War , was rediscovered in the s by the now state-run Yunzi company.
The term yunzi can also refer to a single-convex stone made of any material; however, most English-language Go suppliers specify Yunzi as a material and single-convex as a shape to avoid confusion, as stones made of Yunzi are also available in double-convex while synthetic stones can be either shape.
Traditional stones are made so that black stones are slightly larger in diameter than white; this is to compensate for the optical illusion created by contrasting colors that would make equal-sized white stones appear larger on the board than black stones.
The bowls for the stones are shaped like a flattened sphere with a level underside. Chinese bowls are slightly larger, and a little more rounded, a style known generally as Go Seigen ; Japanese Kitani bowls tend to have a shape closer to that of the bowl of a snifter glass, such as for brandy.
The bowls are usually made of turned wood. Mulberry is the traditional material for Japanese bowls, but is very expensive; wood from the Chinese jujube date tree, which has a lighter color it is often stained and slightly more visible grain pattern, is a common substitute for rosewood, and traditional for Go Seigen-style bowls.
Other traditional materials used for making Chinese bowls include lacquered wood, ceramics , stone and woven straw or rattan.
The names of the bowl shapes, Go Seigen and Kitani , were introduced in the last quarter of the 20th century by the professional player Janice Kim as homage to two 20th-century professional Go players by the same names, of Chinese and Japanese nationality, respectively, who are referred to as the "Fathers of modern Go".
The traditional way to place a Go stone is to first take one from the bowl, gripping it between the index and middle fingers, with the middle finger on top, and then placing it directly on the desired intersection.
It is considered respectful towards White for Black to place the first stone of the game in the upper right-hand corner. It is considered poor manners to run one's fingers through one's bowl of unplayed stones, as the sound, however soothing to the player doing this, can be disturbing to one's opponent.
Similarly, clacking a stone against another stone, the board, or the table or floor is also discouraged. However, it is permissible to emphasize select moves by striking the board more firmly than normal, thus producing a sharp clack.
Additionally, hovering one's arm over the board usually when deciding where to play is also considered rude as it obstructs the opponent's view of the board.
Apart from the points above it also points to the need to remain calm and honorable, in maintaining posture, and knowing the key specialised terms, such as titles of common formations.
Generally speaking, much attention is paid to the etiquette of playing, as much as to winning or actual game technique. In combinatorial game theory terms, Go is a zero-sum , perfect-information , partisan , deterministic strategy game , putting it in the same class as chess, draughts checkers , and Reversi Othello ; however it differs from these in its game play.
Although the rules are simple, the practical strategy is complex. The game emphasizes the importance of balance on multiple levels and has internal tensions.
To secure an area of the board, it is good to play moves close together; however, to cover the largest area, one needs to spread out, perhaps leaving weaknesses that can be exploited.
Playing too low close to the edge secures insufficient territory and influence, yet playing too high far from the edge allows the opponent to invade.
It has been claimed that Go is the most complex game in the world due to its vast number of variations in individual games. Decisions in one part of the board may be influenced by an apparently unrelated situation in a distant part of the board.
Plays made early in the game can shape the nature of conflict a hundred moves later. The game complexity of Go is such that describing even elementary strategy fills many introductory books.
In fact, numerical estimates show that the number of possible games of Go far exceeds the number of atoms in the observable universe. Research of go endgame by John H.
Conway led to the invention of the surreal numbers. Go long posed a daunting challenge to computer programmers , putting forward "difficult decision-making tasks, an intractable search space, and an optimal solution so complex it appears infeasible to directly approximate using a policy or value function".
Many in the field of artificial intelligence consider Go to require more elements that mimic human thought than chess. The reasons why computer programs had not played Go at the professional dan level prior to include: .
As an illustration, the greatest handicap normally given to a weaker opponent is 9 stones. It was not until August that a computer won a game against a professional level player at this handicap.
It was the Mogo program, which scored this first victory in an exhibition game played during the US Go Congress. In March , Google next challenged Lee Sedol , a 9 dan considered the top player in the world in the early 21st century,  to a five-game match.
Leading up to the game, Lee Sedol and other top professionals were confident that he would win;  however, AlphaGo defeated Lee in four of the five games.
In October , DeepMind announced a significantly stronger version called AlphaGo Zero which beat the previous version by games to 0.
An abundance of software is available to support players of the game. This includes programs that can be used to view or edit game records and diagrams, programs that allow the user to search for patterns in the games of strong players, and programs that allow users to play against each other over the Internet.
Some web servers [ citation needed ] provide graphical aids like maps, to aid learning during play. These graphical aids may suggest possible next moves, indicate areas of influence, highlight vital stones under attack and mark stones in atari or about to be captured.
There are several file formats used to store game records, the most popular of which is SGF, short for Smart Game Format.
Programs used for editing game records allow the user to record not only the moves, but also variations, commentary and further information on the game.
Electronic databases can be used to study life and death situations, joseki , fuseki and games by a particular player.
Programs are available that give players pattern searching options, which allow players to research positions by searching for high-level games in which similar situations occur.
Black escapes into the center with 7 and White stakes out a position in the bottom right with 8. Next Black pincers the white stone at 6 with 9.
At the end of the game, the player who controls the more territory wins the game. We are going to show you how territory is formed in a game on a 9x9 board.
Although go is usually played on a 19x19 board, it can also be played on a 9x9 board, or any size board from 5x5 up. Explaining the rules on a 9x9 board is convenient because the game is over quickly and the beginner can immediately grasp the flow of the game and how the score is counted.
We also recommend that you play your first games on a 9x9 board and, when you have mastered the rules, start playing on the 19x19 board.
An Example Game Figure 1, Black makes his first move on the point, after which White makes his move. Thereafter, both sides continue to alternate in making their moves.
With White 6, the territories of both sides are beginning to take shape. Black has stake out the right side and White has laid claim to the left side.
Once you have mapped out your territory, there are two basic strategies to choose from. One is to expand your own territory while reducing your opponent's territory.
The other is to invade the territory your opponent has mapped out. White must defend at 8 to block an incursion by Black into his territory on the left.
Next, Black reinforces his territory on the right with 9. It is now White's turn to expand his territory. He does this by first expanding his center with 10 and 12 in Figure 3, then expanding his upper left territory with Black must defend his top right territory with The moves from White 16 to Black 19 in Figure 4 are a common sequence.
The same kind of sequence is next played at the bottom from White 20 to Black By playing these moves, White is able to expand his territory while reducing Black's.
White 24 to White 26 in Figure 5 are the last moves of the game. The British Go Association provides more good information on computer Go, including several freeware reviews.
This software review is copy-edited by Jojo Yee. Please help edit and improve this article by clicking here. Comments A more modern version GoPanda 2.
Click here. Skip to main content. Best to avoid changing audio; GnuGo engine must be installed separately. Install Steam.
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